Treatment and rehabilitation methods
The key setting of our rehabilitation program: a patient is a person who has a huge potential for unrealized opportunities.
Thanks to psychophysical psychophysiological and psycho-psychotherapeutic methods of influence, we help to mobilize the hidden reserves of the body for the restoration of mental functions, the disclosure of the capabilities of the auditory analyzer, psychometrics, improvement of hearing acuity, attention, intelligibility, and development of speech, social adaptation.
Drug therapy is used only as an exception.
Basically, patients are treated without medication, and the course of their treatment is designed for 20 daily sessions.
Basic and auxiliary methods of treatment in the course of treatment and rehabilitation measures:
- Body-oriented psychotherapy
- Body-oriented psychotherapy in combination with stimulation of cortical and subcortical speech zones (sensitive primary Wernick speech zone, Broca secondary motor zone and auditory cortical zones)
- Body-oriented psychotherapy in combination with tactile therapy
- Process-oriented therapy
- Supportive therapy
- The technique of dosed limiting the arrival of sensory information with the exclusion of the visual and auditory analyzer
- Family psychotherapy
- Behavioral psychotherapy
- Integrative psychotherapy
- Autogenic training
- Assertive training
- Family counseling
- School for parents
- Art therapy
- Video therapy and video surveillance
- Music therapy
At all stages of medical and psychosocial rehabilitation, the use of medication is minimized or even eliminated.
Acupuncture (determine the heading)
The main method is psychophysical (psychophysiological) methods, incl. psychotherapy, which prevails at all stages of medical and social events. The impact on patients is made both verbal (verbal) and non-verbal methods. In this case, classical methods of psychotherapy are applied, including psychoanalysis. The arsenal of treatment also includes physical methods of influencing the patient’s body, in particular, acupuncture, massage of biologically active zones and points, etc. However, such methods are always adapted for each individual case.
To achieve a full-fledged rehabilitation effect, in addition to psychological and psychotherapeutic manipulations, measures are also taken to create “extreme conditions for the organism that activate the survival process” and mobilize the body’s deep reserves, both in the physical and psychological spheres. Extreme conditions encourage the body to find new ways of compensation for rehabilitation. This causes the “drowsy brain” to begin an active search for a way out of the impasse.
Art therapy (from the Greek word arte – valor, virtue ).
This complex includes special psychological and psychotherapeutic methods that allow you to influence the moral (spiritual) life of a person.
Art therapy can overcome such qualities as shyness, indecision, fear, fear of strangers, and is carried out in two stages.
The first – an independent choice of patients and materials for the implementation of the idea. If necessary, a psychologist or a psychotherapist supports creative initiatives, and those who have been rehabilitated to some extent may be attracted to help.
The second – patients are given the opportunity for the independent manufacture of hand-made articles, drawings, figures, etc. At the end of the lesson, we discuss the qualities that were activated during the creative process – psychological and motor activity, behavior, etc.
Video therapy and video surveillance, or a look at yourself from the side
It is carried out from the first days of contact of the patient with the doctor. In the process of rehabilitation activities, patients observe changes in their condition, which encourages them to look even better, eliminate their mental and physical deficiencies, and so on. With the accumulation of positive changes, they can assess progress in the complex, and see the dynamics of recovery.
Pedotherapy (medical and pedagogical measures)
The technique allows expanding the process of treatment from the medical foothold to a broader, more social one, in order to integrate the patient into a full living space.
In this case, the following tasks are solved:
- teaching children with disabilities to independent thinking and developing their ability to find an outlet in different life situations
- the stimulation of physical and speech activity, the ability to move around, speak correctly, communicate, etc.
- education of an active attitude towards the rehabilitation process and treatment of specific shortcomings of hearing, speech and other physical disorders
- Adaptation to a new, positive life formula (elimination of thoughts of inferiority, stimulation of positive emotions, etc.)
- work on the positive with parents (changing stereotypes, adapting to a healthier lifestyle of the child and family)
Like other methods of harmonious impact, it allows to activate the psychophysical capabilities of the patient’s body, improve its social adaptation, etc. Usually used in conjunction with other methods.
We have seen from our medical practice that rehabilitation programs for such a complex category of patients, as patients with disabilities, simply do not have stereotyped approaches. Moreover, such rehabilitation usually takes its relatives to its circle, as the environment of primary habitation. In the course of creative work, we found the concept of an integrative approach for medical and psychosocial rehabilitation, where the best methods and means of psychotherapy, psychology and pedagogy are united into one knot.
In our research institute, patients with disabilities, for example, with hearing impairments, are in the process of treatment together with persons with normal hearing functions, but who have neurotic and somatoform disorders.
After treatment, the patient needs constant communication with normally hearing people, i.e. a more complete social macro and microenvironment than before. A recovering person, one might say, spreads his wings, and therefore he needs not isolation, but space.
In our early studies, it was found that after the illness of a child, 84% of mothers and 18% of fathers have different emotional-affective psychotic and nonpsychotic disorders. If you do not take measures to eliminate them, then in the future there is a real possibility of a more rude character of psychotic, psychosomatic diseases. These disorders also have social significance, namely: in 5.2% of such families there is a disintegration of marriage, 11.0% – there is an alcohol abuse, in 9.8% there is a refusal of a previously planned second child, etc.
Ignoring such disorders in the process of rehabilitation of the patient can negate the effectiveness of all other methods. To avoid this, we developed a complex of socio-therapeutic, psychotherapeutic rehabilitation activities aimed at simultaneously helping the parents and other members of the patient’s family.
The goal of socio-therapy is to improve social relationships, awaken and strengthen interest in healthy work, and eliminate an inferiority complex. For this purpose, a set of psychotherapeutic measures is used in conjunction with the therapeutic and pedagogical effect. With this integrated approach, some treatment interventions complement others. Our system carries the possibility of communication, meetings in informal groups. For example, we hold traditional meetings of already treated and new patients. To such therapeutic and pedagogical activities are involved teachers, leaders of labor collectives, social workers, as well as active and direct participants are relatives of patients, their relatives.
Elements of socio-therapeutic measures are used in the process of rehabilitation: from the first day of the patient’s arrival until the end of the treatment. Much attention is paid to them and at repeated stages. One more necessary condition: after discharge, we maintain contact with patients, we coordinate (further outside the medical institution) further psychotherapeutic measures, in which the main instrument of influence on the patient is just socio-therapy.
Family co-therapy is one of the main stages of family psychotherapy, the aim of which is to familiarize oneself with family relationships, the problems of family members (members) and the relationship of the child’s illness to these problems. At the same time, situations, aspects of role-based interaction-interaction in the family are analyzed to search for elements of the curative effect (resource) for the further conduct of therapeutic and rehabilitation measures.
School for parents
A school for parents is necessary for the organization of treatment and rehabilitation activities for sick children, training elements of psychological care for parents in order to achieve the maximum positive result.
Autogenic training is one of the stages of convalescents in patients, including.
family psychotherapy for parents. At the same time, they learn to train muscle relaxation, self-hypnosis, self-education (autodactics), etc.
Assertive training is conducted at the subsequent stages of autogenic training with the goal of developing self-confidence,
confident behavior. At the same time, AST promotes the patient in promoting and preventing his own fantasy and idea of need, aspiration, feelings (emotions), interests in relation to himself and others.
Behavioral psychotherapy includes non-verbal and verbal-cognitive, motivational-affective, emotionally-subjective, non-verbal imitative manipulations, whose goal is to improve social adaptation and communication in the micro- and macro environment and has the following features:
- goal setting – psychotherapy. Based on clinical and experimental-
psychological research determines which skills or behavioral disorders
should be corrected in the course of work;
- assessment of the problem – what negative habits should be removed
- study of motivation in the game or individual positive responses to social
relationship and help the patient to realize their abilities.
Body-oriented psychotherapy in the system of child rehabilitation is one of the methods of psychotherapy aimed at understanding the sick child of positive and “negative” bodily sensations, which are created artificially by the medical personnel themselves (physician, rehabilitator).
TOP in combination with stimulation of cortical and subcortical speech zones (sensitive primary
Vernike speech zone, Broca’s secondary motor zone, and auditory cortical zones). During
psychotherapeutic measures simultaneously stimulate speech zones (Wernike zone
and the Broca zone) and auditory cortical zones (the dominant hemisphere of the brain).
TOP in combination with tactile therapy (stimulation of biologically active points (zones) BAT (Z)) –
one of the ways to stimulate the communicative spheres in children. To this end, a daily
artificial stimulation of BAP (G) of a child before the appearance of positive emotions on the face.
Treatment, in this case, is aimed at removing neurotic and
somatoform disorders, improving social existence. Within 2-3 months after
the patients stay under our active supervision. In particular, they are conducted
such supportive psycho-psychotherapeutic activities as telephone conversations,
correspondence, and communication on the Internet. If necessary, the patient may be appointed
short course of treatment in a hospital.
One course of medical and psychosocial rehabilitation consists of 3-4 stages. Beginning with the first stage, the patients are adapted for the next stage of therapy.
Stage I – is the adaptation and elimination of neurotic and somatoform disorders, improvement
Mutual relations in micro- and macro environment. After that, patients are discharged under supervision
specialists, with subsequent supportive therapies.
After adaptation to the results achieved, after 3-4 months the second stage of therapy is carried out. At the same time, the main emphasis is on fixing the results of the first stage in the interval between the I and II stages and connecting a more intensive impact on sensory stimuli and speech centers in the left hemisphere (Brokka and Wernicke) by stimulating these centers again.
After a break of 3-4 months, the next stage III therapy is carried out. At this stage, along with the usual therapy of stages I and II, an individual (if desired and with the consent of parents of children and adults)
drug therapy. After completion, with a break of 3-4 months, we proceed to the IV stage of therapy, which consists in the artificial dosing of the intake of sensory stimuli, in particular, visual and auditory ones.
After completing one course of therapy, these patients are under our supervision and
the further carrying out of rehabilitation measures is coordinated with the results of the first course of therapy, the desire, and capabilities of family members of the patient.
Long-term observations made it possible to draw a conclusion about the effectiveness of this approach. In most patients, especially in children with A and AKP, after treatment other than improving cognitive processes, incl. psycho-speech and psychomotor development, the parameters of social existence are normalized, the work of the endocrine, immune systems improves, and children are less sick.
Harmonization of mental life leads to the disappearance of discomfort in communicating with the external environment, there is interest in creativity and art.