Vegeto-vascular dystonia in children (VSD)
Many diseases of children in the prepubertal and puberty periods and more adult age are associated with VSD at a younger age. Such diseases include hypertension, ischemia, bronchial asthma, diabetes mellitus, gastrointestinal dyskinesia, stomach and duodenal ulcer, ulcerative colitis, polyarthritis, skin diseases, etc., and they originate from vegetative disorders in early childhood.
Violation of autonomic regulation can manifest itself in the form of an AVI. It is observed in almost all children, beginning with infancy. At the age of 1-2 years, in the prepubertal and puberty periods, there is an increase in the number of such patients / Isaev DN, 2000 /. Depending on the age of their severity and clinical manifestations have their own characteristics.
According to Belokon N.A. and others (1987), among children with non-infectious etiology, 5 to 75% among children who come to the clinics are children with VSD.
The most prominent signs of manifestations of VSD in children of younger age groups are:
- Decrease or increase in body weight and uneven distribution of adipose tissue (thighs, buttocks, mammary glands),
- skin manifestations (pallor, vascular pattern, sweating or lack of sweat,
- unclear skin eruptions: itching, swelling, acne or skin pigmentation, neurodermatitis, hyperemia (local), urticaria),
- disorders of metabolic and endocrine systems, deceleration or acceleration of puberty, incl. violation of physiological processes (menstrual cycle),
- thermoregulation disorder (low-grade body temperature 37-38 ° C),
- violation of the function of CAS (heart palpitations),
- Decrease or increase in blood pressure, meteozavisimost, dizziness, lack of air,
- a cough of unclear genesis (in particular, a spasmodic cough),
- Dysfunction of the gastrointestinal tract, pain in the chest, in the joints, muscles.
- Babies up to a year can be observed regurgitation;
- up to 2-3 years – frequent constipation, rarely – diarrhea, vomiting;
- older than 4 years – frequent pain in the digestive tract, dyskinesia of the biliary tract, poor appetite, flatulence, combined with the pallor of the skin and “glasses under the eyes.”
All these phenomena are combined with a decrease in the productivity of mental and physical work capacity, behavioral, cognitive, affective disorders.
The study of heredity revealed the burden of neurocirculatory dystonia (cardiovascular disease) in more than 50-75% of cases among the relatives of the mother and 50-65% among the relatives of the father / Isaev DN, 2000 /. An important factor is the factor of unfavorable course of pregnancy, noted in 62-95% of women whose children later became ill with hypertension.
The peculiarities of the manifestation of VSD in children, in comparison with adults, are characterized by the fact that in the anamnesis the children have more pronounced asthenic manifestations and less psycho-traumatic factors. In some children, with the close examination of anamnestic data, one can always identify peri-or postnatal pathologies, craniocerebral trauma (for example, a child in childhood fell off a table, chair, stroller), but without consequences. In fact, parents simply did not pay attention to mildly expressed autonomic symptoms.
In older children, during puberty, these symptoms take on a more pronounced appearance, emotional coloring with behavioral disorders, decreased mental and physical performance, etc. In the dynamics, complications in the psychosomatic status are clearly traced, with the connection of insignificant and significant psycho-traumatic situations.
Especially it should be emphasized that against the backdrop of exacerbation of insignificant psychotraumatic situations, individual nosological disorders can occur, for example: enuresis, encopresis, stammering, ticotic disorders, etc.
Children are subjected to all kinds of examinations and various types of treatment. And in adult patients, and in many parents of sick children, “eternal complaints and sufferings” on the inefficiency and incurability of the disease are further combined with an active search for other methods and methods of treatment. Negative results of therapy lead to the fact that some patients fall out of the field of view of doctors, tk. looking for “comfort” from other “experts” (sorcerers, healers, manusologists, etc.), part – engaged in self-medication. Most of them then turn into “patients with medical labyrinths.”